THE FORT OF MANZUMA: HISTORY OF LAFIAGI
Origin of the Name ‘Lafiagi’.
In former times KinNupe was known as Ife, Ifa or Apa. It is this ancient national name of KinNupe that is still known as Apa among the Idoma, Igbira, Igala and many other ancient Nigerian peoples who originated from and left KinNupe in those days when KinNupe was still known as Apa.
It is this same ancient national name of KinNupe that is still known as Ife, Ile Ife or Ifa among the ancient Yoruba people who originated from and left KinNupe in those days when KinNupe was still known as Elemkpe, Ele Ife, Ife or Ifa.
Apa was also pronounced as Apai or Pai. And, accordingly, KinNupe was also known in ancient times as Pai.
In those days most of the rivers that pass through KinNupe – including the River Niger and any of its tributaries – were generally referred to as La-Pai or Lapai. The prefix ‘la’ in this case being a latter form of the ancient ‘ra’ which was the original Nupe word for ‘a body of water’ such that ‘Ra-Pai’ or ‘La-Pai’ will simply and directly mean the ‘Water of Pai’ or the ‘River of Pai-Land’, that is, and as we might translate it today, ‘The River of Nupeland’.
It was this ancient Nupe word, ‘Lapai’ that was generically applied to all the rivers in KinNupe in very ancient times.
But then the very name ‘Lapai’ itself has an endless variety of dialectal variants and synonyms. Lapai was also variously pronounced as Lafai, Lafia or, as we pronounce it today, Lafiagi.
Actually the variant ‘Lafia’ was popularised by the loaning of the Hausa ‘Lafia’, which is itself a corruption of the Arabic ‘Khafiya’ or ‘healthy’, into Nupe.
Lafiagi the Original Ile Ife
In those days all the rivers in KinNupe were variously known as Lapai, Lafia or Lafiagi. With time all riverine settlements in KinNupe also became generally identified as Lapai, Lafia or Lafiagi. Actually Lapai, Lafia or Lafiagi was originally used as a place marker as in, for instance, ‘Lafiagi Katsa’ or the ‘Lafiagi of katsa’ which will mean ‘The Riverine Settlement of Katsa’.
That was how we came about the present town of Lafiagi in Edu Local Government of Kwara State – it used to be just one of the various Lafiagis, that is, Nupe riverine settlements. And it used to have its original, proper name apart from the generic Lafiagi riverine name.
But what was peculiar about this particular Lafiagi of today’s Edu Local Government Area is that it was located right on the banks of the River Niger.
The point is that since it was located on the very banks of the River Niger it was evidently one of the original Ile Ifes mentioned in ancient Nupe and Yoruba traditions as being among the first of the earlier Ile Ifes.
The Odu Ifa Divination panegyrics of the Yoruba people categorically stated, to this very day, that the modern city of Ile Ife was not the original Ile Ife founded by Oduduwa or even Oramiyan.
Professor Obayemi demonstrated that modern Ile Ife is at least the eighth Ile Ife from the original Ile Ife which was located in KinNupe. Professor Lawal Babatunde also wrote that Original Ile Ife was a Nupe town located in KinNupe.
There were several original Ile Ife settlements in various parts of KinNupe before the eventual Ile Ife that we see in Osun State today was founded. In fact the Yoruba traditions of Oduduwa residing in Ile Ife were in reference to that original Ile Ife that was first founded and established in KinNupe and, accordingly, Oduduwa was a Nupe man.
Today’s Lafiagi was evidently one of the original Nupe Ile Ifes “sitting on the River Niger” reported by the first European explorers and missionaries to arrive KinNupe. As late as the 1830s the Lander brothers were told at Old Oyo, by Yoruba people pointing towards today’s Lafiagi, that original Ile Ife was a Nupe town located on the banks of the River Niger.
Reverend T.J. Bowen and G.O George, who were among the first Europeans to visit Yorubaland, also referred to Lafiagi as the original Ile Ife.
The point here, and as we pointed out right at the beginning of this article, is that the names ‘Ife’ and ‘Ifa’ and ‘Fai’ or ‘Fia’ are one and the same ancient names pronounced differently due to dialectal differences. It is therefore clear that ‘Ile Ife’ can also be pronounced as ‘Ile Fia’ or, simply, as ‘Lefia’ or as ‘Lafia’ which can then go to be pronounced as ‘Lafiagi’ as we do today.
Whatever the case might have been it is obvious that many present-day Nupe settlements – including Fogbe, Tafian, Lapai, Lafiagi and Patigi – are among the original Ile Ifes mentioned in the ancient traditions of the Nupe and Yoruba peoples.
They said present-day Lafiagi used to be a very ancient village in the midst of surrounding villages on the banks of the River Niger. It was its location on the very banks of the River Niger that attracted travellers and passers-by to it as a place of sojourn whenever they are crossing the River Niger.
Actually Lafiagi and its collection of neighbouring villages form a port of entry through the River Niger to the trans-Niger half of KinNupe in those ancient days. Lafiagi was also an important port of call on the route of ancient caravan and trade route that linked the southern half of ancient Central Sudan, that is ancient Nigeria and its neighbours, with its northern half.
So, Lafiagi has always been there as a very ancient port of the River Niger. And nobody can really tell when Lafiagi was first founded as a settlement on the very banks of the River Niger in those very far off days.
But then, and particularly in the latter half of the seventeenth century, KinNupe became the headquarters of a Central Sudan-wide Islamic Revolution due to the fervent desire on the part of the Etsu Nupes in those days to set up an Islamic Caliphate to replace the declining power of the then Songhai empire.
That was how KinNupe became a centripetal magnate attracting Muslim Jihadists and itinerant nomads and pastoralists from all parts of the Central Sudan and even beyond.
That was how many Mallams, including Mallam Dendo, Mallam Alimi, Man Musa Kodogi, Mallam Sharif Balarabe and many other Mallams came and settled in different parts of KinNupe at the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries.
Mallam Dendo and Etsu Zubairu Majiya II
Mallam Dendo arrive KinNupe in the very first decade of the nineteenth century. He was warmly welcomed by the Etsu Nupes and eventually settled down at the Zugurma and Raba palaces of Etsu Zubairu Majiya II.
Mallam Dendo became a favourite of Etsu Zubairu Majiya II because of Mallam Dendo’s fame for asiri magical prowess. Etsu Zubairu Majiya engaged the services of Mallam Dendo against his opponent Etsu Jimada who ruled over the Western half of the Nupe Nation with capital at Zugurma and Raba.
But then the fame and popularity of Mallam Dendo began to gradually overshadow that of Etsu Zubairu Majiya at Raba. Other Mallams from all parts of West Africa and beyond were trooping down to Raba to join the rapidly growing followership of Mallam Dendo at Raba.
Though slightly alarmed Etsu Zubairu Majiya didn’t really mind the growing fame of Mallam Dendo at Raba until the incident of Mallam Alimi at Ilorin took place.
Mallam Alimi have also come into KinNupe in the same manner that Mallam Dendo came into KinNupe. But though Mallam Dendo had settled at Raba Mallam Alimi had settled at Ilorin.
Mallam Alimi had initially settled quietly and innocuously at Ilorin but his followership had suddenly exploded due to his fame as a Mallam with a lot of asiri talismanic powers. In the end the initially self-effacing Mallam Alimi became suddenly bold and assertive to the extent of waging Jihad wars and conquering Ilorin which he established into his own emirate.
Political observers immediately alerted Etsu Zubairu Majiya II to the possibility of Mallam Dendo re-enacting the same thing at Raba in KinNupe. That was when Etsu Zubairu Majiya became alarmed and decided to do something to curb the growing powers and threat of Mallam Dendo at Raba.
Etsu Zubairu Majiya II eventually drove Mallam Dendo out of Raba and declared a war of extermination against all the Mallams in KinNupe.
Well, Etsu Zubairu Majiya eventually came to see all these Mallams as constituting a threat to his sovereignty over KinNupe so he drove all the Mallams out of Central KinNupe.
The Battle Of Ilorin Or Mugba Mugba Battle
The Mallams from different parts of KinNupe went and regrouped under Mallam Alimi at Ilorin.
At Ilorin these Mallams, prominent among whom was Mallam Dendo, began to reach out to all possible helps from all directions. They begged Etsu Isa, also known as Etsu Idirisu, who was the son of the Etsu Jimada killed by Etsu Zubairu Majiya II at Ragada, to come and head and lead them at Ilorin against Etsu Zubairu Majiya II. They also called on all other Mallams and Islamic Jihadists from all parts of the Central Sudan to come to their aid against Etsu Zubairu Majiya whom they now labelled as a pagan Etsu Nupe intent on wiping out Islam from KinNupe.
Many Mallams, mercenaries and Jihadists from different parts of KinNupe did flock to and joined the Rebel Mallams at Ilorin.
Among those Mallams who joined the Rebel Mallams at Ilorin was one certain Mallam Maliki and his brother called Manzuma.
In any case Etsu Zubairu Majiya II suddenly attacked the Mallams at Ilorin with a gargantuan army of over 4,000 cavalry and over 1,000 infantry. It was a vicious and bloody war that was initially in favour of Etsu Zubairu Majiya’s army. But in the end the battle miraculously turned against Etsu Majiya’s gargantuan army. The victorious Mallam Dendo-Alimi mercenaries were to later come up with a tradition that Etsu Majiya II was defeated through the asiri charms of Mallam Dendo.
Whatever might have been the case Etsu Zubairu Majiya II was not only defeated but was also pursued across the Niger right back through Raba and thence unto Zugurma.
After the pursuit Mallam Dendo, on his way back, settled at Raba and begun to gradually built Raba into an emirate for his own filial dynasts.
Mallam Maliki Settled At Lafiagi
On return from the pursuit Mallam Maliki and his brother Manzuma crossed the River Niger but, instead of going thenceforth to Ilorin, he simply settled down on the River Niger port-town of Lafiagi with his brother Manzuma.
Mallam Maliki and his brother Manzuma chose the location of Lafiagi because it was located in the general area that was variously referred to as Ifa, Efa, Afa, Apa, Ofa, Ife, and so on and on.
They said that there used to be an ancient river, a tributary of the River Niger, which was known as Ifa or Ife and that this same river was the one that came to be known in latter times as Lafia or, as we call it today, Lafiagi.
Whatever the case might have been this ancient Lafia or Lafiagi was evidently one of the earlier Ife or Ile Ife areas referred to by the Odu Ifa as being one of the original sixteen Ile Ifes before the modern Ile Ife at Oyo State.
The initial aim of Mallam Maliki and his brother Manzuma was to quietly preach Islam among the neighbouring villages of Lafiagi.
In fact Mallam Maliki spent his time quietly teaching Islam and assisting the locals with his asiri charms. Together with Mallam Dendo at Raba, Mallam Maliki never actually thought of establishing a political emirate at Lafiagi. Just like Mallam Dendo at Raba, Mallam Maliki was content with the innocuous-sounding and obscure title of the ‘Amir-ul-Muminin’ of the Muslims in his immediate local surroundings.
And this is even though, and together with his brother Manzuma, Mallam Maliki began to build, somewhere around the year 1810, a fortified enclosure at Lafiagi in order to ward off future attacks similar to that of Etsu Zubairu Majiya II.
Mallam Maliki, however, died in 1824.
After the death of Mallam Maliki his junior brother Manzuma was turbaned as the new, and first, Emir of Lafiagi. Mallam Maliki’s son, called Aliyu, was too young to be turbaned as the First Emir of Lafiagi.
But a couple of years into the reign of Emir Manzuma, somewhere around the year 1830, Etsu Isa who helped the Rebel Mallams to crush Etsu Zubairu Majiya II at Ilorin, declared a war, in turn, against all the Mallams in KinNupe again.
At Edun, which Etsu Isa had chosen as his new capital city, Etsu Isa discovered a plot by the Mallams at his palace to overthrow him from power due to his young age and relative inexperience in rulership. He subsequently drove all the Mallams away from Edun and declared a war against all the Mallams in KinNupe.
The Mallams ran away to Raba where they rallied under the leadership of Mallam Dendo. Etsu Isa decided to march on Raba with the intention to put a final end to the Rebel Mallams in KinNupe.
But on his way to Raba Etsu Isa decided to sack any other town or city harbouring any Mallam and that was how he came upon Lafiagi and sacked the town. Emir Manzuma and his people fled to Ilorin in the face of Etsu Isa gargantuan army.
Etsu Isa completely destroyed and burnt down the old town of Lafiagi. Emir Manzuma and others narrowly escaped by the whiskers.
Etsu Isa then proceeded with his march on Raba. At Raba he laid siege on the city waiting for Mallam Dendo and the Rebel Mallams to capitulate. But luck later on ran out on Etsu Isa when Mallam Dendo was able to surreptitiously invited Etsu Zubairu Majiya II back to come and engage Etsu Isa on the walls of Raba.
Etsu Zubairu Majiya II, coming from exile in Agwara in Kambariland, mobilised an almighty army that immediately put the army of Etsu Isa to route. There was not really an engagement as the army of Etsu Isa retreated and fled back to Edun in the face of the almighty army of Etsu Zubairu Majiya II.
From Edun Etsu Isa and his army were pursued further as the Rebel Mallams headed by Mallam Dendo joined forces with Etsu Zubairu Majiya II to attack Etsu Isa t Edun.
After the defeat and pursuit of Etsu Isa, Emir Manzuma was able to return from Ilorin to Lafiagi.
Upon his return from Ilorin Manzuma was now forced to form a stronger alliance with the Dendo dynasts at Raba. It was clear that his Nupe subjects of the newly created Lafiagi Emirate cannot be completely relied upon in times of trouble as is evidenced by the secret support some Lafiagi Nupes gave to Etsu Zubairu Majiya II when he sacked and burnt the town on his way to besiege Raba.
In those days many Nupe people of Lafiagi Emirate, especially from the surrounding villages, simply saw the Lafiagi Emirate dynasts of both the Maliki and Manzuma royalties, as people of Fulani descents and they therefore supported the Nupe Etsu Zubairu Majiya II against them.
To stem the tide of these problems Emir Manzuma was forced to accept Dendo hegemony over his Lafiagi Emirate. He was, for instance, coerced into appointing Ajele taxation and police officers over every district and settlement in his Lafiagi Emirate. But these Ajeles report more or less directly to Emir Usman Zaki at Raba who is their paramount employer.
After the death of Mallam Dendo in 1932 at Raba Usman Zaki became the paramount ruler of the Nupe Nation when his elder brother, Muhammadu Majigi, died a year into his position as the new Amir-ul-Muminin of KinNupe.
In his new position as the paramount ruler of KinNupe Emir Usman Zaki instituted a number of punitive measures against the Ndakpwatwa of Tsaragi. The Dendo dynasts have implicated the Ndakpwatwa and his Tsaragi Nupe subjects as supporters of both Etsu Zubairu Majiya II and Etsu Isa against the Fulanis and the Rebel Mallams in general when both declared their wars against the Rebel Mallams in 1806 and 1830 respectively.
First Emir Usman Zaki blatantly and mischievously declared and elevated the Olukpako head of the Igbominas of Share to a Nupe chieftaincy title that effectively removed the Olukpako from the authority of the Ndakpwatwa or Etsu of Tsaragi.
But, and more ignominious, was the manner in which Emir Usman Zaki imposed his Ajele taxation and police officers in every nook and corner of the entire Gudu Province that once belonged to the Ndakpwatwa or Etsu Tsaragi.
In fact the Dendo dynasts headed by Emir Usman Zaki at Raba blatantly divided and shared out the Gudu land of the Ndakpwatwa among their Fulani and Rebel Mallam fiefs. It is in this regard that Emir Usman Zaki cut the lands of today’s Lafiagi and Patigi Emirates out of the Ndakpwatwa’s Gudu Province and gave them out as fiefdoms to Emir Manzuma of Lafiagi.
All these, of course, greatly enhanced the power of Emir Manzuma and his Lafiagi Emirate.
But Emir Manzuma died around that very time in 1833.
Emir Aliyu of Lafiagi.
After the death of Emir Manzuma, Aliyu, the son of Mallam Maliki became the next, that is second, Emir of Lafiagi.
This Aliyu was the same who was too young to become the Emir upon the death of his father Mallam Maliki in 1824.
When Aliyu became a grown-up man, and with his uncle Manzuma as the Emir of Lafiagi, Aliyu went westward and founded the town of Tsonga whereby the royal dynasty of Tsonga originated.
Upon the death of his uncle Manzuma, Aliyu came back to Lafiagi and was turbaned as the next Emir of Lafiagi in 1833.
But Emir Aliyu had hardly settled down as the new Emir of Lafiagi when, in 1834, he immediately got embroiled in a terrible trouble beyond his control.
Masaba, the rebellious junior brother of Emir Usman Zaki, was banished by his elder brother from Raba. Masaba came down to seek asylum at Lafiagi but Emir Aliyu couldn’t allow him settle at Lafiagi in order not to draw the ire of Emir Usman Zaki. Emir Aliyu instead allowed Masaba to take refuge at Lade.
But Masaba was so angered by this cold reception from Emir Aliyu that he, in his characteristic scheming manner, got the Emir of Gwandu and other Mallams to unanimously deposed Emir Aliyu from power as the Emir of Lafiagi.
Emir Aliyu was deposed as the Emir of Lafiagi in 1834 and was made to go back to being the ruler of Tsonga.
Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma
Upon the deposition of Emir Aliyu, Abdulkadir the son of the late Manzuma was immediately turbaned as the new, that is the third, Emir of Lafiagi.
But hardly have the new Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma settled down as the new Emir of Lafiagi than another big crisis broke out in the KinNupe of those days.
Etsu Zubairu Majiya II had died at that time in 1835 and his son, Tsado, was coroneted as the new Etsu Nupe.
Etsu Tsado, a remarkable figure in Nupe history, who is a direct descendant of the ancient Tsoede dynasty have refused to hand over the ancient Tsoede regalia of power to Emir Usman Zaki. Without those regalia Emir Usman Zaki was having a problem of legitimacy and credibility among the general Nupe populace who look upon as a mere Fulani usurper of Nupe rulership.
The ever rebellious and scheming Masaba have taken advantage of this rift between Etsu Tsado and Emir Usman Zaki and eventually succeeded in pitching the two against one another. The resulting series of battles ended in the woeful defeat of Emir Usman Zaki by Etsu Tsado.
In the last series of battles in 1841 Masaba have joined forces with Etsu Tsado and they besieged Raba. Emir Usman Zaki mysteriously escaped from Raba and in company of his nephew, Umaru Majigi, fled to Gwandu after sojourning at Agaie.
When Masaba and Etsu Tsado discovered that Emir Usman Zaki have escaped from Raba they attacked, sacked and burnt Raba to rubbles and ashes.
For the next couple of years afterwards KinNupe was in a state of chaos though Etsu Tsado became the paramount Etsu Nupe over the Nupe Nation at with his capital city at Gbara.
Masaba have also declared himself the new Emir of Nupe immediately after the battle of Raba. But supporters of the exiled Emir Usman Zaki will not recognise Masaba as the new Emir of Nupe.
In the end Emir Halilu of Gwandu summoned a convention of all the Etsu Nupes and all the Mallams at Raba. At that Raba Convention in 1845 Masaba was officially and unanimously recognised as the new Emir of Nupe. Emir Usman Zaki had to abdicate in favour of his brother Masaba in order to let peace reign.
At that same Raba Convention most of the land of the Lafiagi Emirate was taken away from Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma of Lafiagi and given over to the new Emir Masaba.
To make matters worse for Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma the new Emir Masaba said he cannot stay at Raba which was in rubbles and ashes – instead Masaba chose Lade, which is too close for comfort, to Lafiagi, as his new capital city.
With Lade as the ever-scheming Emir Masaba’s new capital city, Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma of Lafiagi was virtually a captive in the hands of the all-too-power Masaba the paramount ruler of the whole of the Nupe Nation.
In fact the moment Masaba settled down at Lade as his new capital city he immediately plotted and deposed Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma that very year 1845.
Emir Aliyu Maliki’s Second Term
After deposing Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma, Emir Masaba brought back Emir Aliyu Maliki from Tsonga to resume his rulership, second term, as the Emir of Lafiagi.
It bespoke of the diplomatic dexterity and mischievousness of Emir Masaba that being the one who deposed Emir Aliyu in the first place in 1834 and installed Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma in his place, he was now the same person who was able to again re-install Emir Aliyu Maliki by deposing Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma.
This story is complicated by the fact that the arch-schemer Masaba had actually used Emir Abdulkadir’s brother Usman to plot the ouster of Abdulkadir from power with the promise that he will turbaned Usman as the new Emir after his brother. Albeit Masaba disappointed Usman by, instead, recalling Aliyu from Tsonga after deposing Abdulkadir.
But Emir Masaba’s reign of power was suddenly cut short by his own able, but extremely powerful, war General Umaru Bahaushe.
In 1847, that is just some two years into Emir Masaba’s reign, Masaba’s War General Umaru Bahaushe became so powerful that, following a quarrel with Masaba over slave-raiding, he rebelled against Masaba and overthrew him from power as the Emir of KinNupe.
General Umaru Bahaushe pursued Emir Masaba from Lade through Meri to Lalagi and eventually out of KinNupe proper to Kabbaland.
Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma’s Second Term
With the troublesome Masaba out of Lade, Emir Aliyu Maliki was once more deposed but this time around by Umaru Bahaushe who has declared himself as the new Etsu Nupe of the entire Nupe Nation. Umaru Bahaushe also recalled Emir Abdulkadir Manzuma from Ilorin and reinstalled him as the new Emir of Lafiagi.
Umaru Bahaushe then sent Emir Aliyu back to his throne as the Etsu Tsonga.
And then for the next nine good years, from 1857 to 1856, Umaru Bahaushe reigned as the disputed Etsu Nupe of the whole of KinNupe.
But all the Mallams and the Etsu Nupes eventually ganged up against Umaru Bahaushe and defeated him in 1856 as he laid siege on a hapless Prince Umaru Majigi at the small walled Bini village of Bida located on the Landzun river.
Umaru Bahaushe got drowned in the River Gbako as he fled his pursuers in the dead of the night from Bida.
After the death of Umaru Bahaushe a Second Raba Convention was convened again with all the Etsu Nupes and Nupe Emirs and Mallams in attendance. At this Second Convention it was unanimously decided that all bad feelings and bitterness should be shelved among all the stakeholders of KinNupe.
At that Second Raba Convention Usman Zaki was unanimously agreed upon to be the new Emir of the Nupe Nation. He chose Bida as his new capital city for his second term as the Emir of Nupe. Masaba was appointed as the Sarkin Fulani to Emir Usman Zaki.
Emir Abdulkadir was unanimously agreed at this Second Raba Convention to be left as the Emir of Lafiagi.
Emir Abdulkadir reigned afterwards peacefully until his death in 1868.
Upon the death of Emir Abdulkadir in 1868, Halilu was immediately turbaned as the new Emir of Lafiagi. Emir Halilu reigned for some fourteen years from that 1968 to 1882.
Emir Halilu was succeeded by Emir Aliyu who reigned from 1882 to 1891. This Emir Aliyu was unfortunately caught up in a situation whereby he had to support the revolutionary Nupe forces who rebelled against Etsu Umaru Majigi of Bida. The rebels under Nda Legbo and Kolo Shuiabu had conquered both Tsonga and Lafiagi and held Emir Aliyu as virtually a captive.
But the rebels were eventually defeated by the Bida army supported by the Royal Niger Company forces. Emir Aliyu was therefore forced to flee Lafiagi together with the rebels to Oke Ode. The Bida forces then invaded and conquered Lafiagi.
Etsu Umaru Majigi died in 1884 while the Bida army was still occupying Lafiagi. Maliki, who was heading the Bida army at Lafiagi was, paradoxically enough, immediately installed as the new Etsu Nupe at Lafiagi.
The new Etsu Maliki was persuaded upon to let a repentant Emir Aliyu return from Oke Ode to Lafiagi.
Emir Aliyu then reigned quietly and under the shadow of Etsu Maliki until his, Etsu Aliyu’s, death in 1891.
Abdulrahimi became the next Emir of Lafiagi after the death of Emir Aliyu in 1891. This Emir Abdulrahimi was the last of the biological children of Manzuma to reign as Emir of Lafiagi. Unfortunately Emir Abdulrahimi reigned for just eighteen months before he died in 1892.
Emir Ahmadu Abdulkadir
Ahmadu the son of the late Emir Abdulkadir became the next Emir of Lafiagi after the death of Emir Abdulrahimi in 1892.
During the reign of Emir Ahmadu the Nupe people of Lafiagi revolted twice against him, burnt down the town of Lafiagi and deposing Emir Ahmadu on two different occasions with the British Royal Niger Forces reinstalling him back on both occasions.
The revolt was due to the general perception in those days that the British have come over to break the power of the Emirs and Fulani dynasts over the Nupe people. In those days the British Colonial administrators, under Frederick Lugard the Anti-Nupe, deliberately balkanised the Nupe Nation and in the process excised the south-western half of the Nupe Nation which they gave to the Ilorin Province.
Emir Ahmadu died in 1915.
Emir Muhammadu Bello
Muhammadu Bello, the son of Emir Ahmadu, immediately became the next Emir of Lafiagi after the death of his father in 1915.
There was trouble as Emir Muhammadu Bello was deposed by Kpotun Shuaibu the son of the late Emir Halilu. The British authorities arrested Kpotun Shuaibu, reinstalled Emir Muhammadu Bello, and banished Kpotun Shuaibu to Katsina.
Emir Muhammadu Bello died in 1945 after reigning for a lengthy period of 30 years.
Emir Abubakar Kawu
Abubakar Kawu was turbaned as the new Emir of Lafiagi immediately after the death of Emir Muhammadu Bello in 1945. But Emir Abubakar Kawau was deposed in 1949.
Etsu Maliki became the next Etsu Lafiagi immediately after the death of Emir Abubakar Kawu in 1949. But Etsu Maliki reigned for just a year as he died in 1951.
Etsu Abubakar became the new Etsu of Lafiagi in 1951 after the death of Etsu Maliki. But Etsu Abubakar abdicated in favour of Etsu Umaru Oke Ode in 1961 after a lot of allegations of misruling were levelled against the former.
Etsu Umaru Oke Ode
Etsu Umaru Oke Ode took over as Etsu Lafiagi in 1961. He reigned for fifteen years from 1961 to 1975 and his reign was considered a golden reign because it witnessed a lot of development in Lafiagi.
Etsu Umaru Oke Ode died in 1975
Etsu Sa’adu Kawu Haliru
His Royal Highness Sa’adu Kawu, the son of Mallam Haliru Lukpan, became the next Etsu of Lafiagi after the death of Etsu Umaru Oke Ode in 1975. His Royal Highness Etsu Sa’adu Kawu Haliru is still the reigning Etsu Lafiagi to date.